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Portis Jr added it May 01, James Forestier marked it as to-read Jul 11, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Keith Keffer. Keith Keffer. His earliest writing revolved around writing adventure games, and three decades later that effort led to the completion of his first novel.

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Keith loves books, lots of books in lots of different genres. If it has monsters, swords, magic, explosions, spaceships, ghosts or cowboys he is probably going to enjoy it. He is also a sucker for crude, twisted humor. His dad led him to the dark side many years ago. Once it is out, it is hard to get it back under control. You can find out more about Keith by visiting his website at keithkeffer. You can find out more about his karate school by visiting ActionKarateWhitehall. Books by Keith Keffer. If you want to return a shaper to factory new specifications and excellent accuracy, you may have to do some scraping of the machined surfaces.

I believe that hand scraping is something everyone who rebuilds an old machine should learn.

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If you are lucky enough that your machine does not need scraping then you might want to do decorative scraping on the table and some other shaper parts. I have attended a club scraping seminar, read 3 books about scraping, and watched one video about scraping. Here are some reference books that may help. Machine Tool Reconditioning by E. Connelly is the definitive reference to scraping. But if you must scrape then you may want to invest the time and money in this book.

This book has nothing to do with shapers but it has everything to do with taking on and completing large projects such as rebuilding a shaper, building a shaper kit, or building a shaper from scratch. I got some good ideas for self motivation from this book. Here is a quote from the inside cover — "A case study in tractor restoration day by day, mistake by mistake, disaster by disaster, scar by scar. Your best resource would be a friend who has a shaper.

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They have several members from out of state who seldom attend a meeting and a few who join just for the club newsletter the NEMES Gazette. In addition to the newsletter, they sometimes have group purchases and occasional professional speakers at the meetings. One frequently asked question is I don't have a milling machine. Can I save some money by first getting a shaper. I have heard that you can do anything on a shaper?

The answer is no. Don't even think about it. Although shapers are relatively inexpensive and frequently even given away you will not be a happy camper if your first serious metal working machine is a shaper. It is true that with patience and love you can create almost anything with a shaper.

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But you'll never replace a mill. A shaper makes a wonderful addition to your workshop after you have the real necessities. It can be fun and educational. Additionally most shaper owners pick them up for next to nothing and do some serious cleanup and sometimes rebuilding. This can prove to be an interesting adventure. Shapers are good at making flat things, and keyways.

Additionally shapers are the only machines that can make inside keyways, and inside gears. You can cobble some way to make inside keyways and gears without a shaper — such as using a tail stock ram to cut inside stuff on a lathe — but it isn't natural! Also in a small shop shapers are a very inexpensive way of making normal external gears. This is because you can grind a tool bit to the shape of the gear tooth and save the expensive purchase of an involute gear cutter.

This month we will talk about another frequently asked question. Does it matter which direction the motor runs on my shaper? The short answer is yes. Most shapers that you are likely to come across in an amateur's workshop will be column shapers like the one pictured above. The motor, through a combination of belts, pulleys and gears, ultimately turns the large bull gear.

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Pictured above we see the rocking arm that pivots at point P0 is pushed by the offset pin in the bull gear at point P1. By setting the position of this point you determine the length of your shaper's stroke. The top of the rocking arm at point P2 supplies the forward and backward motion of your ram through the link to point P3. The correct direction is for the motor to move the bull gear clockwise in the drawing above such that the top of the bull gear is always moving towards the front of the shaper.

This motion of the eccentric pin at point P1 will cause the ram to move forward on the cutting stroke more slowly than when it is retracting. The assumption is that you need all the power available to cut the steel but on the return stroke you can trade off power for speed and increase production. The reality is less dramatic. On modest stroke lengths there is very little difference in speed between the power stroke and the retract stroke. If you set your shaper on its lowest speed you will be hard pressed to notice the difference.

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But on the maximum length stroke the ram does retract noticeably faster than the power stroke. If you run the motor backwards it still works fine. This brings up an interesting question about old machinery. Here we have a shaper that has been running for 30 years in the same direction. At the beginning of the power stroke when the tool bit first hits the steel there is one or two teeth in the bull gear that do all the work. This is the most important part of the shaper to check if you are looking at a used shaper.

Make sure there are no teeth missing from the bull gear. But if we reverse the motor and run the bull gear backwards will it spread the wear out more evenly and last longer or will it stress some poor gear tooth in a way that it had never been stressed before and cause a premature failure? Think about it and maybe we can have a show of hands at the next meeting. Jay Stryker one of our club members who is a shaper expert asked the question in another way. Shapers were designed for slow speed cutting on cast iron. For aluminum, this is too slow. Is it OK to use a mechanical bull-geared shaper running in reverse to get the higher speed of the rapid retract for the forward stroke in order to cut aluminum?

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Would this wear the linkage or cause some mechanical problem? The advantage is that one could use the ordinary speeds , instead of running the shaper at its highest speed. I never imagined when I asked for questions that I would get the leading experts asking tough questions.

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I thought about it quite a bit and the short answer is no. Since the speed difference is only significant on long strokes and since the shaper slows down at the beginning and ending of each stroke the speed difference is only over a very short length in the middle of the part being machined. And I can prove it! Point P0 is the pivot point of the rocking arm and will be considered the origin for all values.

Point P1 as the bull wheel turns travels to the right and left as a function of the sine of the angle of the bull wheel. If we consider the ram stroke as the X direction and the up and down motion of the offset pin as the Y direction then point P1 moves around in a circle and any given point will be represented as X1 and Y1. Point P2 will be at X2 and Y2.