One may continue to remove elements of S until getting a linearly independent spanning set. Such a linearly independent set that spans a vector space V is called a basis of V.

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The importance of bases lies in the fact that there are together minimal generating sets and maximal independent sets. Any two bases of a vector space V have the same cardinality , which is called the dimension of V ; this is the dimension theorem for vector spaces.

Moreover, two vector spaces over the same field F are isomorphic if and only if they have the same dimension. If any basis of V and therefore every basis has a finite number of elements, V is a finite-dimensional vector space. Matrices allow explicit manipulation of finite-dimensional vector spaces and linear maps.

Their theory is thus an essential part of linear algebra. Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space over a field F , and v 1 , v 2 , By definition of a basis, the map. That is, if. Matrix multiplication is defined in such a way that the product of two matrices is the matrix of the composition of the corresponding linear maps, and the product of a matrix and a column matrix is the column matrix representing the result of applying the represented linear map to the represented vector. It follows that the theory of finite-dimensional vector spaces and the theory of matrices are two different languages for expressing exactly the same concepts.

Two matrices that encode the same linear transformation in different bases are called similar. Equivalently, two matrices are similar if one can transform one in the other by elementary row and column operations. For a matrix representing a linear map from W to V , the row operations correspond to change of bases in V and the column operations correspond to change of bases in W.

Every matrix is similar to an identity matrix possibly bordered by zero rows and zero columns. In terms of vector space, this means that, for any linear map from W to V , there are bases such that a part of the basis of W is mapped bijectively on a part of the basis of V , and that the remaining basis elements of W , if any, are mapped to zero this is a way of expressing the fundamental theorem of linear algebra. Gaussian elimination is the basic algorithm for finding these elementary operations, and proving this theorem. Systems of linear equations form a fundamental part of linear algebra.

Historically, linear algebra and matrix theory has been developed for solving such systems. In the modern presentation of linear algebra through vector spaces and matrices, many problems may be interpreted in terms of linear systems. Let T be the linear transformation associated to the matrix M. A solution of the system S is a vector. Let S' be the associated homogeneous system , where the right-hand sides of the equations are put to zero. The solutions of S' are exactly the elements of the kernel of T or, equivalently, M.

The Gaussian-elimination consists of performing elementary row operations on the augmented matrix. These row operations do not change the set of solutions of the system of equations. In the example, the reduced echelon form is.

## Applied Linear Algebra and Matrix Analysis by Shores, Thomas S

It follows from this matrix interpretation of linear systems that the same methods can be applied for solving linear systems and for many operations on matrices and linear transformations, which include the computation of the ranks , kernels , matrix inverses. A linear endomorphism is a linear map that maps a vector space V to itself.

If V has a basis of n elements, such an endomorphism is represented by a square matrix of size n. With respect to general linear maps, linear endomorphisms and square matrices have some specific properties that make their study an important part of linear algebra, which is used in many parts of mathematics, including geometric transformations , coordinate changes , quadratic forms , and many other part of mathematics.

The determinant of a square matrix is a polynomial function of the entries of the matrix, such that the matrix is invertible if and only if the determinant is not zero. This results from the fact that the determinant of a product of matrices is the product of the determinants, and thus that a matrix is invertible if and only if its determinant is invertible. Cramer's rule is a closed-form expression , in terms of determinants, of the solution of a system of n linear equations in n unknowns.

The determinant of an endomorphism is the determinant of the matrix representing the endomorphism in terms of some ordered basis. This definition makes sense, since this determinant is independent of the choice of the basis. This scalar a is an eigenvalue of f. If the dimension of V is finite, and a basis has been chosen, f and v may be represented, respectively, by a square matrix M and a column matrix z ; the equation defining eigenvectors and eigenvalues becomes.

Using the identity matrix I , whose entries are all zero, except those of the main diagonal, which are equal to one, this may be rewritten. The eigenvalues are thus the roots of the polynomial. If V is of dimension n , this is a monic polynomial of degree n , called the characteristic polynomial of the matrix or of the endomorphism , and there are, at most, n eigenvalues. If a basis exists that consists only of eigenvectors, the matrix of f on this basis has a very simple structure: it is a diagonal matrix such that the entries on the main diagonal are eigenvalues, and the other entries are zero.

In this case, the endomorphism and the matrix are said diagonalizable. More generally, an endomorphism and a matrix are also said diagonalizable, if they become diagonalizable after extending the field of scalars. In this extended sense, if the characteristic polynomial is square-free , then the matrix is diagonalizable. A symmetric matrix is always diagonalizable. There are non-diagonalizable matrices, the simplest being. When an endomorphism is not diagonalizable, there are bases on which it has a simple form, although not as simple as the diagonal form.

The Frobenius normal form does not need of extending the field of scalars and makes the characteristic polynomial immediately readable on the matrix. The Jordan normal form requires to extend the field of scalar for containing all eigenvalues, and differs from the diagonal form only by some entries that are just above the main diagonal and are equal to 1. A linear form is a linear map from a vector space V over a field F to the field of scalars F , viewed as a vector space over itself.

For v in V , the map.

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This canonical map is an isomorphism if V is finite-dimensional, and this allows identifying V with its bidual. In the infinite dimensional case, the canonical map is injective, but not surjective. There is thus a complete symmetry between a finite-dimensional vector space and its dual. This motivates the frequent use, in this context, of the bra—ket notation. This defines a linear map.

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If elements of vector spaces and their duals are represented by column vectors, this duality may be expressed in bra—ket notation by. Besides these basic concepts, linear algebra also studies vector spaces with additional structure, such as an inner product.

The inner product is an example of a bilinear form , and it gives the vector space a geometric structure by allowing for the definition of length and angles. Formally, an inner product is a map. An orthonormal basis is a basis where all basis vectors have length 1 and are orthogonal to each other. Given any finite-dimensional vector space, an orthonormal basis could be found by the Gram—Schmidt procedure.

The inner product facilitates the construction of many useful concepts. It turns out that normal matrices are precisely the matrices that have an orthonormal system of eigenvectors that span V. In this new at that time geometry, now called Cartesian geometry , points are represented by Cartesian coordinates , which are sequences of three real numbers in the case of the usual three-dimensional space. The basic objects of geometry, which are lines and planes are represented by linear equations. Thus, computing intersections of lines and planes amounts to solving systems of linear equations.

This was one of the main motivations for developing linear algebra. Most geometric transformation , such as translations , rotations , reflections , rigid motions , isometries , and projections transform lines into lines.

## Applied Linear Algebra and Matrix Analysis - Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics

It follows that they can be defined, specified and studied in terms of linear maps. Until the end of 19th century, geometric spaces were defined by axioms relating points, lines and planes synthetic geometry. Around this date, it appeared that one may also define geometric spaces by constructions involving vector spaces see, for example, Projective space and Affine space It has been shown that the two approaches are essentially equivalent. Presently, most textbooks, introduce geometric spaces from linear algebra, and geometry is often presented, at elementary level, as a subfield of linear algebra.

## Book:Thomas S. Shores/Applied Linear Algebra and Matrix Analysis

Linear algebra is used in almost all areas of mathematics, thus making it relevant in almost all scientific domains that use mathematics. These applications may be divided into several wide categories. The modeling of our ambient space is based on geometry. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.

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